SPRAIN is a common medical condition where one or more of the ligaments of the ankle is torn or partially torn that caused by sudden overstretching
Classification of ankle sprain:
- An inversion injury is the most common cause of an ankle sprain and occurs when the ankle rolls outward and the foot turns inward. It results in stretching and tearing of the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.
- Less commonly, the ankle rolls inward and the foot outward in an eversion injury, damaging the ligaments at the inside of the ankle.
- The high ankle sprain is the least common. It can happen when the foot is forced to rotate toward the outside (away from the other foot), or when the foot is planted so it can’t move and the leg is rotated toward the inside.
The signs of an ankle sprain include:
- pain or tenderness
- coldness or numbness in the foot
- inability to walk or bear weight on the joint
The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
- Weak muscles of the ankle
- Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint (this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains)
- Poor ankle flexibility
- Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity
- Inadequate joint proprioception
- Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position
- Running on uneven surfaces
- Shoes with inadequate heel support
- Wearing high-heeled shoes
- NSAIDs or acetaminophen. Examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDS) include ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin) and naproxen (such as Naprosyn). A common type of acetaminophen is Tylenol.
- Cold therapy (cryocuff /ice pack)
- Soft tissue manipulation
- Rice approach
- Patient education
- Strengthening exercise
- i. Ankle strengthening exercises are step ups and walking on toes which will strengthen the muscles around the swollen area.
- i. Balance exercises include the use of a wobble board which help the whole body function together. The use of wobble boards have shown to produce significantly positive results in gaining proper balance compared to not using it
- i. Example of a flexibility exercise is a towel stretch and writing the alphabet with toes which will increase the range of motion.
- Ankle brace (for extra comfort)
- Strengthening exercise
- b. Balance exercise
- c. Flexibility exercises
Almost all ankle sprains heal on their own with proper treatment and rehabilitation (rehab) exercises.
Other strategies that can be used to prevent ankle injury include:
- Ensure proper warm-up prior to stretching and activity
- When running, choose level surfaces and avoid rocks or holes
- Ensure that shoes have adequate heel support
- If high-heeled shoes are worn, ensure that heels are no more than 2 inches in height, and avoid heels with a narrow base
Oxford concise medical dictionary
Nurul Syafiqah Binti Kasin
e-Wellness Johor Bahru.